My research on Hume has been aided and encouraged in many ways by the University of Georgia, especially by its libraries, which are directed by David Bishop, by the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, whose Dean is W. Jackson Payne, and by the Department of Political Science, which has been headed during the period of this research by Loren P. Beth and Frank J. Hayek, Leo Strauss, and Joseph Cropsey. This volume has been revised throughout for this new printing. The edition continues to serve as the copy-text, but a comparison with the edition was helpful in detecting typographical errors in the edition that might otherwise be indistinguishable.
Cadell, in the Strand: and A.
Kincaid, and A. Donaldson, at Edinburgh; two volumes. A comparison of the edition of Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary with that of shows that Hume reworked carefully the last edition that he prepared for the press, sometimes making substantial changes. Second, I have corrected the other writings reprinted in this volume against the appropriate copy-texts, thus ending all dependence on the unreliable edition of Green and Grose, save for the use of their apparatus of variant readings.
Third, I have redesigned and corrected the Index of the first edition. Finally, I have made a few minor changes in the editorial apparatus.
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I am indebted to the following persons for suggestions that were helpful in preparing this revised edition: John Danford of the University of Houston; Thomas Pangle of the University of Toronto; Samuel Shaffer of Nashville, Tennessee; and M. Stewart of the University of Lancaster. It is difficult for a man to speak long of himself without vanity; therefore, I shall be short.
It may be thought an instance of vanity that I pretend at all to write my life; but this Narrative shall contain little more than the History of my Writings; as, indeed, almost all my life has been spent in literary pursuits and occupations. The first success of most of my writings was not such as to be an object of vanity. I was born the 26th of April , old style, at Edinburgh. My family, however, was not rich, and being myself a younger brother, my patrimony, according to the mode of my country, was of course very slender.
My father, who passed for a man of parts, died when I was an infant, leaving me, with an elder brother and a sister, under the care of our mother, a woman of singular merit, who, though young and handsome, devoted herself entirely to the rearing and educating of her children. I passed through the ordinary course of education with success, and was seized very early with a passion for Edition: current; Page: [ xxxiii ] literature, which has been the ruling passion of my life, and the great source of my enjoyments.
My studious disposition, my sobriety, and my industry, gave my family a notion that the law was a proper profession for me; but I found an unsurmountable aversion to every thing but the pursuits of philosophy and general learning; and while they fancied I was poring upon Voet and Vinnius, Cicero and Virgil were the authors which I was secretly devouring.
My very slender fortune, however, being unsuitable to this plan of life, and my health being a little broken by my ardent application, I was tempted, or rather forced, to make a very feeble trial for entering into a more active scene of life. In , I went to Bristol, with some recommendations to eminent merchants, but in a few months found that scene totally unsuitable to me.
I went over to France, with a view of prosecuting Edition: current; Page: [ xxxiv ] my studies in a country retreat; and I there laid that plan of life, which I have steadily and successfully pursued. I resolved to make a very rigid frugality supply my deficiency of fortune, to maintain unimpaired my independency, and to regard every object as contemptible, except the improvement of my talents in literature. After passing three years very agreeably in that country, I came over to London in In the end of , I published my Treatise, and immediately went down to my mother and my brother, who lived at his country-house, and was employing himself very judiciously and successfully in the improvement of his fortune.
Never literary attempt was more unfortunate than my Treatise of Human Nature. It fell dead-born from the press, without reaching such distinction, as even to excite a murmur among the zealots. But being naturally of a cheerful and sanguine temper, I very soon recovered the blow, and prosecuted with great ardour my studies in the country. In , I printed at Edinburgh the first part of my Essays: the work was favourably received, and soon made me entirely forget my former disappointment. I continued with my mother and brother in the country, and in that time recovered the knowledge of the Greek language, which I had too much neglected in my early youth.
In , I received a letter from the Marquis of Annandale, inviting me to come and live with him in England; I found also, that the friends and family of that young nobleman were desirous of putting him under my care and direction, for the state of his mind and health required it. My appointments during that time made a considerable accession to my small fortune.
Great Expectations (Annotated) (Summit Classic Collector Editions)
I then received an invitation from General St. Clair to attend him as a secretary 2 to his expedition, which was at first meant against Canada, but Edition: current; Page: [ xxv ] ended in an incursion on the coast of France. Next year, to wit, , I received an invitation from the General to attend him in the same station in his military embassy to the courts of Vienna and Turin. I then wore 3 the uniform of an officer, and was introduced at these courts as aid-de-camp to the general, along with Sir Harry Erskine and Captain Grant, now General Grant. These two years were almost the only interruptions which my studies have received during the course 4 of my life: I passed them agreeably, and in good company; and my appointments, with my frugality, had made me reach a fortune, which I called independent, though most of my friends were inclined to smile when I said so; in short, I was now master of near a thousand pounds.
I had always entertained a notion, that my want of success in publishing the Treatise of Human Nature, had proceeded more from the manner than the matter, and that I had been guilty of a very usual indiscretion, in going to the press too early. I, therefore, cast the first part of that work anew in the Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, which was published while I was at Turin.
But this piece was at first little 6 more successful than the Treatise of Human Nature. On my return from Italy, I had the mortification to find all England in a ferment, on account of Dr. A new edition, which had been published at London of my Essays, moral and political, met not with a much better reception. Such is the force of natural temper, that these disappointments made little or no impression on me. I went down in , and lived two years with my brother at his country-house, for my mother was now dead.
I there composed the Edition: current; Page: [ xxxvi ] second part of my Essays, which I called Political Discourses, and also my Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, which is another part of my treatise that I cast anew. Meanwhile, my bookseller, A.
Millar, informed me, that my former publications all but the unfortunate Treatise were beginning to be the subject of conversation; that the sale of them was gradually increasing, and that new editions were demanded. However, I had fixed a resolution, which I inflexibly maintained, never to reply to any body; and not being very irascible in my temper, I have easily kept myself clear of all literary squabbles.
These symptoms of a rising reputation gave me encouragement, as I was ever more disposed to see the favourable than unfavourable side of things; a turn of mind which it is more happy to possess, than to be born to an estate of ten thousand a year. In , I removed from the country to the town, the true scene for a man of letters. In , were published at Edinburgh, where I then lived, my Political Discourses, the only work of mine that was successful on the first publication.
It was well received abroad and at home. In the same year was published at London, my Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals; which, in my own opinion who ought not to judge on that subject , is of all my writings, historical, philosophical, or literary, incomparably the best. It came unnoticed and unobserved into the world.
In , the Faculty of Advocates chose me their Librarian, an office from which I received little or no emolument, but which gave me the command of a large library. I then formed the plan of writing the History of England; but being frightened with the notion of continuing a narrative through a period of years, I commenced with the accession of the House of Stuart, an epoch when, I thought, the misrepresentations of faction began chiefly to take place.
I was, I own, sanguine in my expectations of the success of this work. Edition: current; Page: [ xxxvii ] I thought that I was the only historian, that had at once neglected present power, interest, and authority, and the cry of popular prejudices; and as the subject was suited to every capacity, I expected proportional applause. But miserable was my disappointment: I was assailed by one cry of reproach, disapprobation, and even detestation; English, Scotch, and Irish, Whig and Tory, churchman and sectary, freethinker and religionist, patriot and courtier, united in their rage against the man, who had presumed to shed a generous tear for the fate of Charles I.
Millar told me, that in a twelvemonth he sold only forty-five copies of it. I scarcely, indeed, heard of one man in the three kingdoms, considerable for rank or letters, that could endure the book. I must only except the primate of England, Dr. Herring, and the primate of Ireland, Dr.
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Stone, which seem two odd exceptions. These dignified prelates separately sent me messages not to be discouraged. I was, however, I confess, discouraged; and had not the war been at that time breaking out between France and England, I had certainly retired to some provincial town of the former kingdom, have changed my name, and never more have returned to my native country. But as this scheme was not now practicable, and the subsequent volume was considerably advanced, I resolved to pick up courage and to persevere.
In this interval, I published at London my Natural History of Religion, along with some other small pieces: its public entry was rather obscure, except only that Dr. Hurd wrote a pamphlet against it, with all the illiberal petulance, arrogance, and scurrility, which distinguish 8 the Warburtonian school. This pamphlet gave me some consolation for the otherwise indifferent reception of my performance. In , two years after the fall of the first volume, was Edition: current; Page: [ xxxviii ] published the second volume of my History, containing the period from the death of Charles I.
This performance happened to give less displeasure to the Whigs, and was better received. It not only rose itself, but helped to buoy up its unfortunate brother. But though I had been taught by experience, that the Whig party were in possession of bestowing all places, both in the state and in literature, I was so little inclined to yield to their senseless clamour, that in above a hundred alterations, which farther study, reading, or reflection engaged me to make in the reigns of the two first Stuarts, I have made all of them invariably to the Tory side.
It is ridiculous to consider the English constitution before that period as a regular plan of liberty. In , I published my History of the House of Tudor. The clamour against this performance was almost equal to that against the History of the two first Stuarts. The reign of Elizabeth was particularly obnoxious.
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But I was now callous against the impressions of public folly, and continued very peaceably and contentedly in my retreat at Edinburgh, to finish, in two volumes, the more early part of the English History, which I gave to the public in , with tolerable, and but tolerable success. But, notwithstanding this variety of winds and seasons, to which my writings had been exposed, they had still been making such advances, that the copy-money given me by the booksellers, much exceeded any thing formerly known in England; I was become not only independent, but opulent.
I retired to my native country of Scotland, determined never more to set my foot out of it; and retaining the satisfaction of never having preferred a request to one great man, or even making advances of friendship to any of them. As I was now turned of fifty, I thought of passing all the rest of my life in this philosophical manner, when I received, in , an invitation from the Earl of Hertford, 9 with whom I was not in the least acquainted, to attend him on his embassy to Paris, with Edition: current; Page: [ xxxix ] a near prospect of being appointed secretary to the embassy; and, in the meanwhile, of performing the functions of that office.
I have every reason, both of pleasure and interest, to think myself happy in my connexions with that nobleman, as well as afterwards with his brother, General Conway. Those who have not seen the strange effects 10 of modes, will never imagine the reception I met with at Paris, from men and women of all ranks and stations.
The more I resiled 11 from their excessive civilities, the more I was loaded with them. There is, however, a real satisfaction in living at Paris, from the great number of sensible, knowing, and polite company with which that city 12 abounds above all places in the universe. I thought once of settling there for life.